Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracer by Friedrich A. Lohmüller
    3D Animations with POV-Ray
        Some basics and examples on animations.
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  3D Animation Tutorial
   Index of Content
  0. Basic Knowledge
     1. Basic Example
     2. Example 2
     3. Images to Animated Gif
     4. From Images to Video
     5. Basic Terms
     6. Animation Commands  
  I. Cyclic Animations
     1. Rotating Objects
     1.2. Planets in Orbit
  > 1.3. Clock Animation
     2. Rotating Camera
     2.1. Straight Moving Camera
     3. Western Wheel
     3.1. Rolling Wheels
     4. Gears
     4.1. Roller Chain
     4.2. Bike Chain
     5. Swinging Pendulum
     5.1. Newton's Cradle
     5.2: Rock the Rocker
     6. Spiral Pendulum
     7. Coupling Rods
     7.1. Connecting Rods
     8. Psychedelic + Op-Art
     9. Counters + Countdowns
    10. Folding of a Cube
  II. Non-linear Movements
     1.0 Speed Up/Slow Down 1
     1.1 Speed Up/Slow Down 2
     2. Fall + Bounce
     3. Acceleration by
          physical Formulas
     4. Speed Controll by
          Spline Functions
  III. Animation Paths
      with Spline Curves
     1. Spline Curves
     2. Closed Splines
     3. Animation Paths

Animated Hands of a Clock  
The hands of a clock are rotating with different speed.
Cyclic animation of the hands of a clockface.

The Rotations of the Hands of a Clock:
While the hour hand turns 360 degrees just once in 12 hours the minute hand has to turn 12 times more = 360*12 degrees. And again the second hand has to turn another 60 times more = 360*12*60 degrees.
We declare a basic time variable Clock_Time where we can add test values between 0 and 1.
#declare Clock_Time = clock+0.00;
// rotation angles in degrees -------------
#declare Rotate_H   = Clock_Time*360;
#declare Rotate_Min = Clock_Time*360*12;
#declare Rotate_Sec = Clock_Time*360*12*60
Accordingly to test a specified time like
  '2h 20min 30sec' we have to declare:
#declare Clock_Time =
 clock + 2/12 + 20/(720) + 30/(43200);
For a cyclic animation of a 12 hours turn of a clock we should take into account that 12 h = 720 min = 43200 seconds!
So for a small sized cyclic animation it's better not to use the seconds hand. To see the correct running of the seconds hand during a 12 hours turn we need an animation with 43200 frames!

The Jumping of the Minutes and the Seconds:
If we want the hands for minutes and seconds to jump only to full minutes and seconds (each 6 degrees) we should add:
#declare Rotate_Min=int(Rotate_Min/6+0.01)*6;
#declare Rotate_Sec=int(Rotate_Sec/6+0.01)*6;

The Hands of a Clock:
To make the look of the clockface size independent we relate all element sizes to the basic clockface radius:
#declare CR = 0.400; // Clockface radius
// flatten cylinders we use here;
#declare Flat = &l;1,1,0.025>;
#declare Face_D = 0.001;
// length of hands -------------
#declare Hd_H_Len   = CR*0.60;
#declare Hd_Min_Len = CR*0.85;
#declare Hd_Sec_Len = CR*0.95;
// radii of the hands ---------
#declare Hd_H_D   = CR*0.055;
#declare Hd_Min_D = CR*0.035;
#declare Hd_Sec_D = CR*0.020;
// position z of hands --------
#declare Hd_H_Z   = CR*0.05;
#declare Hd_Min_Z = CR*0.04;
#declare Hd_Sec_Z = CR*0.03;
For the hands and marks we use flat cylinders.
// hour hand --------------------
cylinder{ <0,0,0>,<0,Hd_H_Len,0>,Hd_H_D
          scale Flat
          rotate <0,0,-Rotate_H>
          texture{ Hands_Texture } }
// minute hand ------------------
cylinder{ <0,0,0>,<0,Hd_Min_Len,0>,Hd_Min_D
          scale Flat
          rotate <0,0,-Rotate_Min>
          texture{ Hands_Texture }  }
// body center ----------------------------
cylinder{ <0,0,-Hd_H_Z>,<0,0,0>,Hd_H_D*1.5
          texture{ Hands_Texture } }
// face base ------------------------------
cylinder{ <0,0,0>,<0,0, Face_D>,CR
          texture{ Face_Texture } }
For more details of the clockface and the seconds hand and textures see the according scene file.

Clockface: the arms.
Clockface: The marks for hours and minutes.
Clockface complete.
Clockface animation Clockface animation
Clockface animations.
Scene description for POV-Ray:
"Clockface_00.ini" and

station clock
A clock for a railway station
Some examples of use:

Alarm clock
An alarm clock


© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2008